Kategori: Naturvård Internationell Sida 1 av 334

Indigenous Knowledge guides the conservation of culturally important plants | Mongabay Nyheter

Since time immemorial, the Karuk tribe of northern California have managed their ancestral lands, over 400,000 hectares of open oak woodlands, meadows, and forested mountains along the middle section of the Klamath River. They used low-level fires to maintain a healthy landscape for the plants central to their culture. But after settlers arrived in California, stole their land, and outlawed the controlled burns, the landscape changed. “When [colonizers] first came here, they’re like, ‘It’s so beautiful. It’s like the Garden of Eden,’” said Lisa Morehead-Hillman, a Karuk Tribe cultural practitioner. “But that garden has been tended. When you take that human element out of there, then that garden is not anymore.” Now, the costs of fire suppression and worsening climate change are clear: Wildfires and drought have damaged the landscape and plants used by the Karuk Tribe for food, fiber, and medicine. To chart a path toward restoring a healthier balance, Tribal members are working with academic researchers to inform western science with Indigenous Knowledge. Their recent work focuses on four plants central to Karuk culture and food systems, appearing in a recent issue of the Journal for Conservation Science. The core team of individuals who worked together on the Karuk Agroecosystem Resilience Initiative project. From left to right: Jennifer Sowerwine, Kathy McCovey, Vikki Preston, Frank Lake, Dan Sarna-Wojcicki, Megan Mucioki, Shay Bourque. Image courtesy of the Karuk – UC Berkeley Collaborative Many Karuk Tribe members now live along the river on land purchased by the tribe. They see firsthand…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Green and gossamer, and not gone: A Sri Lankan dragonfly flits back to life | Mongabay Nyheter

COLOMBO — The first time that scientists described the beautiful metallic-green dragonfly that they would later call Flint’s cruiser was in 1970. Based on a single dead male specimen, they named the species Macromia flinti, endemic to Sri Lanka. And then, for the next half century, they never saw another one. No flash of iridescent green and yellow, no flutter of gossamer wings. Nothing. Until this year, that is, when a group of young Sri Lankan field researchers resurfaced the species that was thought to be extinct, and in the process shed new light on one of the least-known dragonflies around. “It was only known from a single location based on a single specimen and had no recent records,” Amila Prasanna Sumanapala, one of the researchers and the lead author of the newly published paper highlighting the rediscovery, tells Mongabay. “M. flinti has been categorized as a critically endangered species [on the IUCN Red List], indicating ‘possibly extinct’ status. There had also not been any other surveys to confirm its status either.” So Sumanapala, from the University of Colombo’s Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences and a member of the IUCN’s Dragonfly Specialist Group, set out to find it. Together with colleagues Tharindu Ranasinghe of the Butterfly Conservation Society of Sri Lanka and M.G. Sanjaya Pushpalal from the Young Zoologists Association, their field surveys turned up multiple observations of Macromia dragonflies resembling M. flinti, highlighting the need to undertake further research. The climax of their search was getting their hands…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Some tree-dwelling primates may adapt more easily to life on the ground, massive study shows | Mongabay Nyheter

Some primates spend their entire lives in trees. They avoid the ground, where preferred food is scarce and predators lurk. But deforestation and climate change are threatening their homes in the branches. Habitat loss has some primates swinging down to see what the ground offers, scientists reported recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The massive study included more than 150,000 hours of observations from 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. A global team of 118 researchers analyzed 34 years of field observations of tree-dwelling monkey and lemur species. “We wanted to understand what factors were the most influential in increasing ground use” by arboreal primates, said Timothy Eppley, postdoctoral fellow at the San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance in California. Eppley led the study, and several of the co-authors credit his leadership for its success. A Verreaux’s sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) sits alert while foraging on the forest floor in Madagascar. Photo credit: Timothy Eppley On average, primates in the study spent less than 5 percent of their time on the ground. It doesn’t sound like much, but any time on the ground is dangerous. Predators can strike in a matter of seconds, said study co-author Patricia Wright, a conservation biologist at Stony Brook University in New York. Even so, some animals take the risk. The study revealed that species with certain social and physical traits may have an advantage. Primates with diverse diets and larger group sizes might adapt more easily to terrestrial…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Photos: Newcomer farmers in Brazil embrace bees, agroforestry and find success | Mongabay Nyheter

PARAÍBA VALLEY, Brazil — Under the frigid morning air of the Mantiqueira Mountains in southeastern Brazil, honeybees begin leaving the hive. “When day brakes they are calmer,” says Mara Galvão, a smallholder farmer and beekeeper who is part of the rural agrarian reform settlement Nova Esperança in the Paraíba Valley. Beekeepers Mara, Ana, Cristiane and Yessica manage a box of bees that survived the fires that affected the region during the dry season of 2020. Part of Ana’s plot was consumed by the fire, but the hives resisted. Sítio LaCuna, Egídio Brunetto Agroecological Settlement, Lagoinha, Paraíba Valley, Brazil. Image by Inaê Guion. Nestled between mountains connecting the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Paraíba Valley is home to half a dozen of the more than 500 agrarian reform settlements of the Landless Workers’ Movement (MST) spread across Brazil. One of the largest social movements in the world, MST has generated controversy among politicians and public opinion for its ideological structure inspired by Marxism and methods promoting land occupations. The movement seeks to help landless families occupy, settle and farm throughout the country based on Brazil’s 1988 Constitutional promise that land should “serve a social purpose.” In the South American nation, persistent land inequality has further spurred the movement — about 10% of the largest farms occupy nearly three-quarters of agricultural land. The movement embraces food sovereignty and environmentalism. So far, the movement has led more than 2,500 land occupations, with about 370,000 families settled on 7.5…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

‘It was a shark operation’: Q&A with Indonesian crew abused on Chinese shark-finning boat | Mongabay Nyheter

In November, Mongabay revealed a massive illegal shark fishing and finning operation across the fleet of Dalian Ocean Fishing (DOF), a distant-water fishing firm that has claimed to be China’s largest supplier of sashimi-grade tuna to Japan. The investigation followed from an earlier story revealing widespread labor abuses across the same fleet. Both articles were based on dozens of interviews with Indonesian men who worked on the company’s longline boats between 2018 and 2020. One of these former deckhands, Rusnata, now 40, was born and raised in Majalengka, a district in Indonesia’s West Java province. The first time he left the area was in 2014, when he went to work on a Taiwanese longliner fishing for tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. After returning two years later, he struggled to find work on land, having only a primary school education, so he took a job on the Long Xing 607, one of around 35 boats then in DOF’s fleet. The following account has been combined from multiple interviews Mongabay conducted with Rusnata in 2021 and 2022, that have been heavily condensed and edited for clarity. Mongabay: How did you end up going back for a second stint on a fishing boat? Rusnata: I was enjoying being back on land, and I was with my wife. But slowly the money started to run out. We needed more, and there was pressure from my wife’s family. So I decided to go back to sea. When I got home the first time, my intention…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Rare, critically endangered gecko making dramatic recovery in Caribbean | Mongabay Nyheter

A rare gecko no larger than a paperclip is making a comeback in the Caribbean, thanks to conservation efforts by environmental groups and the government. The Union Island gecko (Gonatodes daudini), known for its jewel-like markings, has seen its population grow from around 10,000 in 2018 to around 18,000 today — an increase of 80%. The gecko resides in an approximately 50-hecatre (123-acre) swath of old-growth forest on Union Island, part of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. When it was discovered in 2005, the animal almost immediately became the target of exotic pet collectors, according to Fauna & Flora International (FFI), a wildlife conservation organization focused on protecting biodiversity. The organization worked with Re:Wild and local partners like Union Island Environmental Alliance and St. Vincent and the Grenadines forestry department to develop a species recovery plan, which involved greater protected area management and expansion as well as anti-poaching patrols and camera surveillance. The gecko’s wild population had shrunk to one-fifth its original size since being discovered. One 2017 study found that it was the most trafficked reptile from the Eastern Caribbean. The gecko has been a popular target for exotic pet collectors. (Photo courtesy of Re: Wild/Jeremy Holden) “As a Unionite and a community leader, I am extremely proud to be a part of this success story,” Roseman Adams, co-founder of the local Union Island Environmental Alliance, said in a press release. “Without a doubt, our shared, unwavering dedication and sacrifice has brought us this far. We now have to…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Indigenous communities in Peru ‘living in fear’ due to deforestation, drug trafficking | Mongabay Nyheter

The territory belonging the Indigenous Kakataibo community of Puerto Nuevo comprises some 680 square kilometers (263 square miles) of rainforest between the regions of Huánuco and Ucayali in central Peru. Or, more accurately, it once did. Satellite data from Global Forest Watch show the territory was relatively unscathed until 2013 when deforestation surged; by 2021 the territory had lost nearly 15% of its tree cover. Global Forest Watch data and imagery suggest forest loss in the territory may have accelerated further in 2022, and local and regional authorities have uncovered many new incursions into Indigenous land. Satellite data visualized on Global Forest Watch show tree cover loss (pink) advancing into the territory of the Puerto Nuevo Indigenous community (green). “We found them cutting down trees with a chainsaw,” said the leader of a Puerto Nuevo patrol group who wished to remain anonymous for safety concerns. “They were hardly an hour and a half away [from the community], and we confiscated their machinery, like five chainsaws, fuel and a motorcycle that they had at that time.” The leader said the patrol group visited the site in early September after being tipped off by Peruvian environmental organization Association for Research and Integrated Development (AIDER). In addition to active deforestation, the leader said the group also uncovered residential structures and illegal fields of coca, a shrub used in the production of cocaine. Members of the Indigenous community of Puerto Nuevo found residential structures and coca crops in their territory. Image courtesy of Puerto Nuevo.…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

In first for Indonesia, government recognizes Indigenous Papuans’ ancestral forests | Mongabay Nyheter

JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has recognized community claims to ancestral forests in the country’s eastern Papua region for the first time in history, a move that environmentalists say could help preserving one of most biodiverse regions on the planet. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry on Oct. 24 handed over decrees that recognized customary forests for seven Papuan Indigenous groups. The groups are the Syuglue Woi Yansu (who received title to 16,493 hectares, or 40,755 acres), Yano Akrua (2,226 hectares, or 5,500 acres), Yano Meyu (501 hectares, or 1,238 acres), Yosu Desoyo (3,394 hectares, or 8,387 acres), Yano Wai (594 hectares, or 1,468 acres), Yano Takwobleng (405 hectares, or 1,468 acres), and Ogoney (16,299 hectares, or 40,276 acres). The Ogoney forests are in West Papua province, while the rest are in Papua province’s Jayapura district. Together, they span 39,911 hectares (98,622 acres), an area half the size of New York City. Indigenous rights activists and agrarian experts say official acknowledgment of their customary forest rights has been a long time coming for communities in Papua. “It’s about time Papuans get recognition,” Rina Mardiana, head of the agrarian studies program at the Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB), told Mongabay. “Since colonial times, Indigenous peoples have been sidelined, and it has only gotten worse after Indonesia gained independence. Their identities are decaying and their lands are turned into objects for [economic] development.” The recognition came nearly a decade after the nation’s highest court ruled in 2013 that customary forests should not be…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

To be effective, zero-deforestation pledges need a critical mass, study shows | Mongabay Nyheter

At the recently concluded COP27 climate summit in Egypt, 14 major agricultural commodity companies, including Cargill, ADM and JBS, released a plan to end deforestation associated with the production of soy, palm oil, beef and cacao by 2025. It was an important announcement from some of the largest traders of agricultural commodities: after the burning of fossil fuels, agriculture is the biggest contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. Cutting down forests for pasture and oil palm plantations, or plowing up savannas to plant soy is a key driver not just of climate change but is also primarily responsible for the biodiversity crisis and at the heart of violent and deadly conflicts over land. The road map was swiftly criticized by environmental groups, who said that not only were the commitments not ambitious enough, but that they also gave companies carte blanche to continue deforesting until the cutoff date with no repercussions. “The roadmap’s insistence that individual companies undertake best efforts to establish individual cut-off dates for deforestation no later than 2025 means the bulldozers will keep running and the destruction will continue,” Mighty Earth, a global environmental advocacy organization, wrote in a statement. For critics of the announcement, there’s a sense of frustration at the same companies that have been promising to end deforestation for years, with little to show to date. In 2010, more than 400 companies promised that their supply chains would be “zero net deforestation” by 2020. None of the companies met that goal, according to The…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

Biodiversity credit market must learn from carbon offset mistakes (commentary) | Mongabay Nyheter

Biodiversity protection and restoration were key topics at COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, and for good reason. Ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference, which included a full Biodiversity Day this year, the World Wildlife Fund released an assessment that revealed the catastrophic effect of human activity on wildlife: according to the Living Planet Report 2022, wildlife populations shrank by an average of 69% between 1970 and 2018. This level of biodiversity loss is both tragic and dangerous for the future of our planet, since biodiverse ecosystems, such as forests, peatlands and oceans, are natural carbon sinks that lose their efficiency when they become threatened. We must act quickly to reverse this damaging trend and protect our planet. Voluntary biodiversity credits – proactive investments from companies, nations and even individuals to protect wildlife – could be a powerful tool, but only if used correctly. The biodiversity credit market must learn the lessons from the carbon credit market and build a transparent, accountable and inclusive system from the beginning. Despite the promise they hold in fighting climate change, carbon offsets are yet to reach their full potential. There remains a lack of trust as there are many intermediaries, a level of uncertainty as to where the money is going, and a certain lack of standardization in the generation of carbon credits. If we make the same mistakes twice, we’ll condemn the biodiversity market to a flailing future. A spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear, caught on a camera trap.…This article was originally published on Mongabay Läs mer

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